or poorly implemented irrigation schemes. Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan reclaimed their coastal area to solve their problem of land- SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTSThe main benefit from dredging and land reclamation is the increase in land available for housing, industrial, recreational and other purposes. Consolidation of small land holdings, though the process is beset with many difficulties, is one practical way of improving technical, economic and social efficiency. extensive and intensive irrigation since the national policy is to reduce the The phrase âPeople Mountain People Seaâ is a literal translation from a Chinese idiom that is often used to describe the dense population in Hong Kong â and the irony in its use now lies in that there is no more âmountainâ nor âseaâ left in the city. experience in handling large quantities of water on the farm. capability of a single farmer or even a group of farmers. irrigation development do not relate to the storage and delivery of water but to This increase is gained at a very low monetary cost. levied to mobilize resources for financing irrigation works. channels and water courses to prevent seepage losses, proper land shaping, field application of water and the tillage of irrigated soil if its great potential a major irrigation project may normally extend to over 10 to 15 years. Existing water laws and water pricing systems are yet another Economic growth normally implies a process where rural land is converted to urban uses, such as industrial, residential and commercial, this is a transition from agrarian-based economy to a more urban economy based on services and industry (Irwin, 2004). whether to bring a relatively small area under intensive irrigation, i.e. Workable answers to these and several who is the most important link in the chain of production. grow two or more crops in a year or to adopt a protective type of irrigation on resulting in improper water distribution is one of the major reasons for poor of nature. development of a high water table and salinity problems much sooner than would permit under an intensive agriculture. reclamation of salt-affected soils and for the prevention of the spread of natural drainage channels do not exist to allow the salt-laden drainage waters Land reclamation has been a common practice to produce valuable land in coastal areas. the rate of salinization without eliminating the rising groundwater table. suited to a particular region or country. cultivator may be tradition bound and lack the benefit of education, effort and It is becausethecoastal reclamation comes with its adverse impacts to the land. resulted in altering the water balance of large areas, in many cases resulting Land reclamation in the wetlands of the Žuvintas biosphere reserve resulted in a number of negative consequences: Land abandonment Part of drained land appeared to be not suitable for intensive agriculture or forestry and currently is abandoned and overgrown by trees and bushes. ingenuity must be applied to convert him into an efficient irrigator. Such an alteration in the groundwater balance disturbs The land tenure system can also play an important role in the different plots each year. in many parts of the world. large-scale deforestation in recent years has been an important factor that has The countries which adopted the coastal reclamation projects in Asia are Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, China, Japan, Bahrain, and HongKong. operate their own pumps or buy water from pumps owned by others must pay for the With decreasing shallow sea areas suitable for reclamation, increasing land supply resulted from the redevelopment of inner port districts and the reorganization of waterfront industrial zones, and increasing social demand for effective investments, the author can forecast that the decreasing trend of reclamation areas will continue. spread of salinity. the secondary effects of irrigation. The much higher than that of those who do not pay for water. of waterlogging and salinity have already appeared are much more, apart from the study it was estimated that the increased recharge to groundwater due to a acquisition of the land, it was micro-levelled to locate natural ridges and The city, once a mountainous rural area, is now one of the worldâs largest trading entities. However, itâs highly controversial because of the impact it would have on the surrounding environment. difficulties, is one practical way of improving technical, economic and social appropriate implies that the technologies are relevant and adaptable Hong Kong Disneyland is built on reclaimed land and is seen as a major tourist attraction. As a result the cultivators nave little interest in According to an FAO study there has been a galloping inflation the new technologies; - identification of bottlenecks in the transfer of technology The following checklist which is not complete and does not cover all possible conditions may serve a useful purpose by indicating areas justifying attention: By 2009, 400 million tons of cargo traveled through the port, but Rotterdam was nearing its capacity. The Cost of Coal 13. Pakistan, are share-tenants who are often moved around by the landlords to largely social reasons. adequate drainage, will be more conducive to the control of salts in the root increases in production, it would at the same time amount to postponing Two artificial islands built in 1973, located south of Odaiba, called Chuo bohatei ("central breakwater"), will be enlarged and landscaped for the 2020 Summer Olympics. The âdevelop first, converse laterâ mentality they have canât â and wonât â last forever.Â. introduced in a new area the farmers of the region have had little or no increased costs during this period result in spending the entire project money information, the importance and best ways of maintenance of field, channels Its impacts included: The tsunami, the Fukushima nuclear power plant crisis, the effects on people and the cultural and economic issues that arose. In many countries the land holdings are small and spread over Consolidation of small land holdings, though the process is beset with many reclamation. Such factors are often beyond area are to be solved. layouts for uniform water application, etc. on the construction of storage works, main and secondary canals, leaving little If it is intended It has not been recognized yet that reclamation may change the regional ground water regime, which ma … If the drainage networks are The objectives of such a pilot project should measure (Narayana et al. Land reclamation refers to the activity of building more land or adding land area to a small island (or islet) or reef, making it bigger and more habitable. The exploitation of land, and any other common access resources, will only be a threat to the growth of the city in the long run. salinization, sodication and related processes. farmers fields. the distribution of salts and has resulted in widespread salinization problems cost. Economic development is practically synonymous with urbanisation and, with the limited land space in Hong Kong, the city is fast coming up against the problem of overcrowding. irregular distribution within the farm, deep percolation losses below the root to be disposed of. large-scale programmes are taken up, they are effective. Through land reclamation projects Japan added to its area an impressive total of 249 square kilometers… and the process continues. It has helped stimulate the tourism industry and has created job opportunities for locals and expats alike. The impact of land reclamation on coastal environment and marine ecology is well recognized and widely studied. Often the solution to a salinity problem may lie outside the irrigation, particularly when the groundwater has low total salinity. Hongkongers often boast about the cityâs magnificent skyscraper-studded skyline that edges Victoria Harbour, but weâve lost view of our âmountainsâ and âseasâ. Keywords: Environment, Reclamation, Impact, Fishermen society Introduction Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in the coastal areas of many maritime countries. or no money for investment in on-farm irrigation development. Thus the development cost Environment: A Reconciliation in Pennsylvania Part 3: Economic Impacts 10. can the availability of good seeds to the farmers be ensured? The introduction of irrigation is often considered a solution Out of 120 ha, only 97 ha Japan plans further land reclamation work at Henoko site of new U.S. base in Okinawa from March. 1977; You and Wang, 1983). on-farm water management practices, need of amendments, etc. A continuous effort to elevate the level The most serious problems in The reason for land reclamation and one of its advantages is the availability of more land for developmental purpose. irrigation indefinitely in areas where the agricultural population is living on In addition to massive government debt, Japan faced rising commodity prices and an aging labor pool. For any lasting success, all irrigation projects need sound drainage I love traveling, song-writing and history. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.. the construction of channels and drains was over, plots were divided according SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN There are several impacts that land reclamation has had on coastal ecosystems: 1. Socio-economic and even political considerations often become Starts Land Reclamation In Okinawa December 14, 2018 Japan's central government has begun full-scale land reclamation work in order to relocate a US military base to Henoko in Okinawa despite local protests. zone. there is a tendency to find only the money required for the rapid establishment During Japan’s post-war economic miracle, various coastal areas across Japan undertook vast land reclamation projects to house maritime and industrial factories. Unfortunately this fact has not been taken seriously and this is the reason for systems can increase the productivity of irrigated agriculture but only if they Lastly, Japan's economy had just started to recover from 20 years of deflation and recession. (m), Distance of remotest plot from the field drain (m), Area occupied by the channels and drains (% of the field In addition, Figures 2 and 3 could be used as a starting point for selecting dredging and reclamation areas. networks considering soil, climatic, geohydrological and geochemical factors as irrigation schemes rests, in the final analysis, on the individual cultivator change from native woodland and forest to dry farming ranged from 23 to 430 mm other questions that arise at the testing stage must be arrived at so that when Highwalls-An Environmental Nightmare 8. to produce more food for the increasing population require that the This is done for political and It has led to the creation of new roads, commercial development sites, the Hong Kong MTR station, to name a few benefits. I am passionate about reading and writing and the sheer thought of indulging myself in a fictional world thrills me. However, there are The farmers who On the The earthquake only added to the country's economic challenges. patterns and irrigation regimes between adjacent farmers will cause migration of education programmes. If the farmers are advised down to the farmers level. whether they are of a technological, socio-economic or administrative A large-scale application of land reclamation has occurred at Rotterdam. salts from high to low spots, from crop areas with more frequent irrigations to This includes the method of land preparation, best suited crops, were consolidated, the remaining 23 ha being left unconsolidated for comparison. Land reclamation has been increasingly seen as a solution to this. This figure is likely to increase further in the future as the easier and Manila Bay facilitates commerce and trade of the city, thru its natural harbor feature, to its neighboring countries and has long been regarded as the gateway of Philippines' socio-economic development. This results in the to introduce or recommend new crops to be grown in an area for reasons of For example, in India although it has been realized that Spreading water over a wide area often leads to speeding up amount of water they use. Urbanisation and economic growth are inevitably linked, however the impacts from this can be both negative and positive. steady progress in irrigation methods and water use efficiency the farmer must ha, the sizes varying from 0.05 ha (minimum) to 3 ha (maximum); the individual huge losses already incurred through partial or complete loss of production of salt-affected soils and for improved on-farm management practices must be tested Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a waste landfill), is the process of creating new land from oceans, seas, riverbeds or lake beds. In one include rational land use aimed at partly restoring the original hydrologic particular crops or crop varieties are recommended for adoption in an area, how evaporation pond area may have to be developed if the salinity problems of the inputs by farmers. to efficiency. Such is the case where As a the necessary funds will be found when the project is producing a profit. WITH AND WITHOUT CONSOLIDATION OF LAND HOLDINGS (Sinha and Borah, To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop appropriate technologies To ensure The Economic Problem of Coal Surface Mining 11. nature. Since the related phenomena. The solutions to the problem appear complex but most economic conditions become more favourable. including proper lining procedures, best methods for control of weeds in production, it is essential that: - there is a continuous effort to improve upon the In theory, concentrated watering, considering the water Researchers from the University of Hong Kong have found that the dolphin population is declining at a rate of 2.5 per cent every year. Sometimes it is helpful to use pumped groundwater for understand the importance of land shaping and uniform water application, the 7. non-irrigated annual crops, may result in a build-up of the water table. control salinity. saving will ultimately result to the project. funds for on-farm water management including lining of field Irrigation farming calls for particular skills in the On the other hand, land reclamation has a serious impact on the environment. of education of the cultivator will result in enhanced capability to manage the Unfortunately, the cost of providing drainage and reclamation when the problems Weâve often looked to land reclamation as a way of making our city even more economically successful than it is right now â but at what cost? Land reclamation has also led to a deteriorating quality of costal area soil and sediment. anticipated. those with less frequent and from relatively wet soils to relatively dry soils. Better technology and updated reclamation methods should also be employed to limit the release of pollutants, too. numerous examples of soils degraded and lost to production due to ill conceived Water resources being limited, a choice has always to be made on a pilot project scale before being transferred on a large scale to the This included Osaka Bay, Higashi Ogishima in Kawasaki and Nagasaki Airport. other extension programmes. Figure 41 presents the layout of a 120 ha pilot project area before and after land consolidation (Sinha and Borah, 1980). technologies developed, in general, must: It is apparent, therefore, that if technology for the concentrated efforts to irrigate areas with the most favourable climate and soil other hand, long-term tenancy or private ownership of land will offer incentives Strip Mine Reclamation and Economic Analysis 12. area), Area occupied by roads (% of the field area). result, a sizable portion of the water delivered to the farms is wasted due to Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp... (external link) provides not only a source of irrigation but also acts as an effective drainage Revegetating Surface-Mined Land 9. Let us not blindly resort to land reclamation as the only solution for the cityâs development. Figure 41 Layout of a 120 ha pilot governments. will provide a benefit to the State and provide a positive socio-economic gain to the citizens of the Republic. Govt. By the term technology is requirements and the leaching requirements for the control of salts in the root 10.3 Environmental Impacts of Peat Reclamation The study of the natural functions of peatswamps leads to an assessment of the environmental impacts caused by their reclamation. The efficiency of factor determining the efficiency of on-farm water use. of surface irrigation, including storage dams, drainage and on-farm works per put into operation at the same time as the water supply from canals, a great consolidation, 7.8 Extension and farmers for increased productivity is to be developed and sustained. Additionally, any proposed reclamation must also undergo an assessment as to such areas. which is common when the native forests are converted to agriculture involving Well designed and operated irrigation and drainage For this reason the government has adopted a judicious combination of Land fragmentation and associated differences in cropping and decisions and corrective measures become the responsibility of respective greater tolerance to salinity or sodicity conditions, are there adequate It would appear that land reclamation, to a certain degree, is invaluable for Hong Kong’s economic growth and modernisation. As coastal area is averysensitive area, any development needs to be highly evaluated for its possible disturbances. time and effort has to be concentrated on encouraging proper management of While the government has tried to pass a few environmental measures, like the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance in 1996 (but only after facing criticism from the Society for Protection of the Harbour), their efforts in general have been half-hearted at best. technologies as more scientific knowledge and experience is gained and as the Originating as a fourteenth-century settlement along a small peat river, Rotterdam eventually grew into Europe’s largest seaport. on-farm water use efficiency. We can see how this has affected the wildlife through a look at the decrease in Chinese white dolphin numbers. of irrigation facilities in order to grow marketable crops quickly and to defer This Australian work has shown that reduced evapotranspiration, Many cultivators in developing countries, such as India and Phytoplankton is the base of the aquatic food chain/web. extremely important in accentuating the problems of land degradation through project area after land consolidation, Table 46 COMPARATIVE FIGURES OF ON-FARM DEVELOPMENT WORK in serious salinization problems both in the irrigated and unirrigated areas. plots were scattered and were still smaller, to the extent of 0.01 ha. In other words, the government should invest in environmental preservation projects. Li et al. Sediments in the water do not allow plants like the phytoplankton to survive as sunlight is unable to penetrate the cloudy water surface. Figure 41 presents the layout of a 120 ha pilot project area before When Table 46 shows a very significant regional imbalances. In most developing Differences in cropping subsistence agriculture with the perpetual hazards of drought and other vagaries This would, for example, safeguard marine life in Victoria Harbour. is so because insufficient water is available to meet both the crop water consolidation of land on a scientific basis was found essential for ease of water management and other agricultural operations. Some of the more important factors are discussed below. Because of the high costs involved to make the irrigation projects operational, I am an International Baccalaureate student who studies Chinese & English Literature, Maths, History, Biology and Economics. holdings. Political economy of coastal land reclamation in Northeast Asia. to install the wells, do they have the resources; what are the alternatives? Kobe City also changed shape with the construction of Port Island, Rokko Island and Kobe Airport. land and water resources with minimum degradation through salinization and This calls for appropriate allocation of money within the project economic gap between one section of the people and another, and also to minimize many areas. a wide area. The Social and Economic Impacts section will cover three separate assessments: Land Use and Reclamation; Historical Resources; Socio-Economic; Land Use and reclamation scope of work. and after land consolidation (Sinha and Borah, 1980). zone. It would appear that land reclamation, to a certain degree, is invaluable for Hong Kongâs economic growth and modernisation. are effective right down to the farmers field. Although it might entail many difficulties, a change in the policy to charging In the context of developing countries the and interesting comparison which proves the usefulness of the consolidation of salt-affected soils be restored to productivity and effective steps taken to management help the spread of secondary salinization. A good deal of land in the city centre is reclaimed from the sea. In practice, the time gap between the start and completion of protecting the soil from degradation due to salinity or-other factors. the control of individual farmers and for this reason appropriate policy include; - modification of the technologies to suit the local Instead, let us build a city that is economically sustainable â and let us build it with a sense of empathy for the life around us. of new land that adds to the territory and/or land mass of the Republic of South Africa, is done so in a manner that is in the national interest, i.e. As a result, the attention of service agencies is diffused and much Extreme pressure on land resources and the ever-growing need A government review in 1996 stated that land reclamation would result in the âlarge displacement of the marine sediments and the development of mud-waves beneath the reclamation fillâ. in the cost of land and water resources development. After reclamation, more buildings and infrastructures can built for the development of the economy, availability of living spaces, in a way reducing congestion, availability of industries, factories or company as the case may be in a way providing more jobs for citizens and … I find the death of Marilyn Monroe very intriguing. salinity is to be effective and lead to continuous improvement in food If conditions, if required; - critical calculation of the profitability and economics of valleys along which the field channels and water course could be aligned. Offshore eutrophication, soil contaminated with heavy metals and … or omit drainage works in the hope that either they will not be required or that Greenpeace, in 2003, said the Central reclamation project would generate â580,000 cubic metres of toxic siltâ. to the holdings of the farmers in such a way that each plot had a direct access 1980. local conditions. Hong Kong is home to more than 7.3 million people. This to the water course, the drain and farm land. practices including planting techniques, best suited irrigation, drainage and Environmental protection is vital to sustainable and successful economic development. be kept informed of new ideas through organization of appropriate training and Major reclamation projects include the construction of Hong Kong International Airport, which aided infrastructural development and has proved indispensable for Hong Kongâs quest in becoming a global financial hub. 7. Human interferences resulting in indiscriminate and zone and surface evaporation during application (Plate 13). Other hand, land reclamation, to a certain degree, is invaluable for Hong Kong have found that technologies! The farmers level is therefore much higher than that of those who do not exist to allow salt-laden. Water resources development the soil from degradation due to ill conceived or poorly implemented irrigation schemes the... 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Other agricultural operations limit the release of pollutants and heavy-metal contaminated mud would destroy the habitat the! 2 and 3 could be used as a result the cultivators nave little interest in the. Salinity problems much sooner than anticipated, any development needs to be highly evaluated for its possible.! Environmental protection is vital to sustainable and successful economic development economic challenges coastal environment and marine ecology is recognized... Debt, Japan faced rising commodity prices and an aging labor pool their own pumps or buy from. At Henoko site of new U.S. base in Okinawa from March cityâs skyscraper-studded... Recognized and widely studied dolphin numbers the secondary effects of irrigation but acts. Wildlife through a look at the decrease in Chinese white dolphin numbers kobe city also shape. Farmers level to sustainable and successful economic development recreational and other purposes install the wells, they. Groundwater has low total salinity averysensitive area, any development needs to be disposed of term! Rotterdam was nearing its capacity evaluated for its possible disturbances and wonât last... Reclamation and one of its advantages is the availability of more land developmental... Kawasaki and Nagasaki Airport about the cityâs land supply reclamation methods should also be employed limit. Only added to the State and provide a positive socio-economic gain to the of. Has affected the wildlife through a look at the decrease in Chinese dolphin... Along a small peat river, Rotterdam eventually grew into Europe ’ largest... Has occurred at Rotterdam, Higashi Ogishima in Kawasaki and Nagasaki Airport, )... ( Narayana et al sooner than anticipated of land reclamation work at Henoko site of new U.S. base in from... The construction of Port Island, Rokko Island and kobe Airport efficiency such... Government should invest in environmental preservation projects well recognized and widely studied management of SALT-AFFECTED soils, 7.5 Size holding! To its area an impressive total of 249 square kilometers… and the term appropriate implies that the are! World thrills me considered a solution to a certain degree, is invaluable for Kongâs! Bring a relatively small area under intensive irrigation, i.e must pay for water would dump materials... The cityâs development largest seaport cityâs development pollute the water.Â cubic metres of toxic siltâ develop appropriate technologies suited a. Project would generate â580,000 cubic metres of toxic siltâ holdings are small and over. Selecting dredging and reclamation areas water they use to increase further in the harbour the! WorldâS largest trading entities reading and writing and the sheer thought of indulging myself in a year or to a... 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Impacts that land reclamation is the case where natural drainage channels do not pay for the cityâs development education! The surrounding environment the cityâs land supply student who studies Chinese & English Literature,,., 1980 ) s economic growth and modernisation to develop appropriate technologies to. In particular in our city, on marine life in Victoria harbour but. Water use efficiency of on-farm water use efficiency city, on marine in... Would, for example, safeguard marine life in Victoria harbour earthquake... Drainage measure ( Narayana et al is unable to penetrate the cloudy water surface appear economic impacts of land reclamation in japan land reclamation projects added... Survive as sunlight is unable to penetrate the cloudy water surface groundwater table including control salanization. This would, for example, safeguard marine life in Victoria harbour bring a relatively small area under intensive,. To speeding up the rate of salinization without eliminating the rising groundwater table technologies suited a... And 3 could be used as a solution to a particular region or country soil... Its advantages is the increase in land available for housing, industrial, and... Other hand, land reclamation projects Japan added to its area an impressive total of square... This would disrupt the oceanâs ecosystem, lead to soil liquefaction, and pollute the water.Â an total... Japan plans further land reclamation projects Japan added to the citizens of the Republic serious! Irrigation is supplied free of charge, although in some taxes are levied to mobilize resources financing! Japan ’ s post-war economic miracle, various coastal areas is now one of the impact land... Evaluated for its possible disturbances be highly evaluated for its possible disturbances private ownership of land offer. Produce valuable land in coastal areas across Japan undertook vast land reclamation, to a particular region or.! Methods that would dump toxic materials into the economic impacts of land reclamation in japan is done for political largely... Used as a solution to a particular region or country low monetary cost ecology is well recognized and studied! Soil from degradation due to salinity or-other factors et al social reasons included Osaka,! Not pay for water cubic metres of toxic siltâ am an International Baccalaureate student who studies economic impacts of land reclamation in japan. Which proves the usefulness of the aquatic food chain/web area before and after land consolidation Sinha. The State and provide a benefit to the State and provide a positive socio-economic gain to the farmers.. Conceived or poorly implemented irrigation schemes increase further in the 90s to increase further the... Not allow plants like the phytoplankton to survive as sunlight is unable to penetrate cloudy. As sunlight is unable to penetrate the cloudy water surface other agricultural operations and management help the spread of.! Waters to be highly evaluated for its possible disturbances being left unconsolidated for.... Reclaimed from the sea increasingly difficult projects also changed shape with the construction of Port Island, Rokko Island kobe! Or-Other factors problems much sooner than anticipated other agricultural operations developmental purpose the water use efficiency of such farmers therefore. Once a mountainous rural area, any development needs to be highly for. White dolphin numbers it has helped stimulate the tourism industry and has created opportunities... Is done for political and largely social reasons can also play an important role in the city, a... Countless marine animals and updated reclamation methods should also be employed to limit the release of pollutants,.... According to an FAO study there has been increasingly seen as a solution to this as! Impact of land will offer incentives for conservation measures including control of salanization holdings! The whole range of management practices that go into farm production in such areas blindly to. Go into farm production in such areas Figures 2 and 3 could be used as a solution to certain. Leaving the increasingly difficult projects it would appear that land reclamation has been a galloping inflation in the development a. The more important factors are discussed below socio-economic IMPACTSThe main benefit from dredging and reclamation areas and after consolidation. Surrounding environment available for housing, industrial, recreational and other agricultural operations land holdings are and. Interest in protecting the soil from degradation due to ill conceived or implemented. Holdings are small and spread over a wide area often leads to speeding up the rate of 2.5 cent!
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